Motivation in the classroom (Skinner & Belmont, 1993)

Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571-581. In the current study, the authors empirically examined the effects of teacher behavior on student engagement over the course of a school year. Of special … Continue reading

Characteristics of the rewarder and intrinsic motivation of the rewardee (Deci et al., 1981)

Deci, E. L., Nezlek, J., & Sheinman, L. (1981). Characteristics of the rewarder and intrinsic motivation of the rewardee. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40(1), 1-10. Most of the studies on the effects of rewards and constraints have indicated that rewards decrease intrinsic motivation. However, many activities for which intrinsic motivation seems desirable occur … Continue reading

Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction (Malone, 1981)

Malone, T.W. Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction, Cognitive Science, 1981, 4, 333-370 (Reprinted in D.F.Walker and R.D. Hess (eds.) Instructional Software,Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1984). For a more succinct version of this paper, see: Malone, T.W. What Makes Things Fun to Learn?: Heuristics for Designing Instructional Computer Games. In Proc. SIGSMALL ’80, ACM Press, … Continue reading

Cognitive Apprenticeship (Collins, Brown, Newman)

Collins, A., Brown, J.S., & Newman, S.E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.) Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 453-494). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. The authors describe the cognitive apprenticeship model, which advocates a “master-apprentice” relationship for successful learning. … Continue reading