Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work (Kirschner, Sweller & Clark)

Kirschner, P.A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R.E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. In this article, the authors challenge supporters of “minimally-guided instruction,” — which includes discovery learning, problem-based learning, inquiry learning, experiential learning, and … Continue reading

Instructional Design — Ch. 2 (Smith & Ragan)

Smith & Ragan (1999). Instructional Design. New York: Wiley. This chapter provides an overview of the philosophies and theories underlying the practice of instructional design. Includes brief descriptions of constructivism, empiricism/objectivism, pragmatism, behaviorism, information processing theory, and various developmental and instructional theories.