Focus on Formative Feedback (Shute, 2008)

Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on Formative Feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 153 -189. doi:10.3102/0034654307313795 In this comprehensive review of the current literature on feedback, Shute organizes decades of work into major areas of consensus and controversy. Ultimately, Shute calls for an expanded view of feedback whereby situational and individual characteristics of the instructional … Continue reading

Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work (Kirschner, Sweller & Clark)

Kirschner, P.A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R.E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. In this article, the authors challenge supporters of “minimally-guided instruction,” — which includes discovery learning, problem-based learning, inquiry learning, experiential learning, and … Continue reading

Implications of Cognitive Load Theory for Multimedia Learning (Sweller)

Mayer, R.E. (Ed.) (2005). Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. New York: Cambridge. [Chapter 2: Implications of Cognitive Load Theory for Multimedia Learning (Sweller)] Sweller points out that humans often flail in the face of novel problems due to a lack of a central executive in working memory. Accordingly, when designing for learning, “Instruction should act … Continue reading

Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design (Sweller)

Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4, 295-312. Sweller states that the two most important goals of learning are schema acquisition and automation (which can also be interpreted as the storing of automated schemas in long-term memory). In order to encourage the achievement of these goals, it … Continue reading

Direct measurement of cognitive load in multimedia learning (Brunken, Plass & Leutner)

Brünken, R., Plass, J.L., & Leutner, D. (2003). Direct measurement of cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38, 53-61. Research on multimedia learning uses cognitive load as a theoretical rationale to explain differences in learning outcomes, yet often such findings lack supporting evidence in the form of measurement of cognitive load on the learners … Continue reading

Schema Acquisition and Sources of Cognitive Load (Kalyuga)

Kalyuga, S. (2010). Schema Acquisition and Sources of Cognitive Load. In J.L. Plass, R. Moreno, & R. Brünken, Cognitive Load Theory, ch. 3. New York: Cambridge. This chapter discusses three important guidelines for designing learning environments so that they may be effective for learners possessing knowledge structures of differing complexity (i.e., varying levels of prior … Continue reading

Multimedia Learning (2009) — Ch. 1-3 (Richard E. Mayer)

This post covers Section I: Introduction to Multimedia Learning: Chapter 1: The Promise of Multimedia Learning Chapter 2: The Science of Instruction: Determining What Works in Multimedia Learning Chapter 3: The Science of Learning: Determining How Multimedia Learning Works [*Note: Much of this material was copied directly from Mayer’s book.]