Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work (Kirschner, Sweller & Clark)

Kirschner, P.A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R.E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. In this article, the authors challenge supporters of “minimally-guided instruction,” — which includes discovery learning, problem-based learning, inquiry learning, experiential learning, and … Continue reading

Human Cognitive Abilities — Ch. 2 (Carroll)

Carroll, J. (1993). Human Cognitive Abilities [Chapter 2]. New York: Cambridge. “Historical Foundations of the Study of Cognitive Abilities” This chapter begins with a brief historical account of the field of mental testing, followed by a discussion of defining intelligence. Carroll also provides a summary of the development of the factor analysis method to investigate … Continue reading

Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning — Ch. 21 (Kalyuga)

Mayer, R.E. (Ed.) (2005). Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. New York: Cambridge. Chapter 21: Prior Knowledge Principle in Multimedia Learning Experienced or high-knowledge learners possess substantial knowledge in the concept domain of interest and are involved in learning more advanced information in this domain. Evidence presented in this chapter suggest that multimedia design principles for … Continue reading

Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning — Ch. 4 (Schnotz)

Mayer, R.E. (Ed.) (2005). Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. New York: Cambridge. Chapter 4: An Integrated Model of Text and Picture Comprehension (Wolfgang Schnotz) Introduction to the Integrated Comprehension of Text and Pictures Model (aka the Integrated Model): There are two basic forms of representation: Descriptions — texts, mathematical expressions. These are all symbols, which … Continue reading

Human Cognitive Abilities — Ch. 1 (Carroll)

Carroll, J. (1993). Human Cognitive Abilities [Chapter 1]. New York: Cambridge. “The Study of Cognitive Abilities” In the opening chapter of his volume on cognitive abilities, Carroll defines key concepts, such as ability, state, trait, cognitive task, aptitude, achievement and factor, used in the study of cognitive ability. He also summarizes the process of conducting … Continue reading

Implications of Cognitive Load Theory for Multimedia Learning (Sweller)

Mayer, R.E. (Ed.) (2005). Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. New York: Cambridge. [Chapter 2: Implications of Cognitive Load Theory for Multimedia Learning (Sweller)] Sweller points out that humans often flail in the face of novel problems due to a lack of a central executive in working memory. Accordingly, when designing for learning, “Instruction should act … Continue reading

Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design (Sweller)

Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4, 295-312. Sweller states that the two most important goals of learning are schema acquisition and automation (which can also be interpreted as the storing of automated schemas in long-term memory). In order to encourage the achievement of these goals, it … Continue reading

Animations Need Narrations (Mayer & Anderson)

Mayer, R.E., & Anderson, B. (1991). Animations Need Narrations: An Experimental Test of a Dual-coding Hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 3, 484-490. In this article, the authors conducted two experiments to test a dual-code model (adapted from Paivio’s dual-coding theory) that attempts to describe how one uses words and pictures to build mental representations. Their … Continue reading

Direct measurement of cognitive load in multimedia learning (Brunken, Plass & Leutner)

Br√ľnken, R., Plass, J.L., & Leutner, D. (2003). Direct measurement of cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38, 53-61. Research on multimedia learning uses cognitive load as a theoretical rationale to explain differences in learning outcomes, yet often such findings lack supporting evidence in the form of measurement of cognitive load on the learners … Continue reading

Return of the mental image (Pylyshyn)

Pylyshyn, Z.W. (2003). Return of the mental image: Are there really pictures in the brain? Trends in Cognitive Science, 7, 113-118. What, exactly, is a mental image? Picture an apple. Are you looking at an image of an apple in your “mind’s eye,” much in the same way you might be holding a photo of … Continue reading